Main Barriers to Education
- Post Conflict
- Insecurity & Instability
This multi-ethnic country, a former colony of Great Britain and later Japan, is home to a population of almost 30 million people, made up of: Malay 50.1%, Chinese 22.6%, indigenous 11.8%, Indian 6.7%, other 0.7%, non-citizens 8.2% (2010 est.) Situated in South East Asia, Malaysia boasts a thriving tourism industry; this country was hit hard however, by the global economic downturn in 2008, which resulted in a $16bn economic stimulus plan, according to the BBC. Malaysia spends 5.6% (2011) of its GDP on education, schooling in this country last for 13 years.
Malaysia is one of the world’s largest producers and exporters of rubber, timber, palm oil and computer disks. In addition, its natural resources include tin, petroleum, timber, copper, iron ore and natural gas. Although successful in industry, unfortunately, this is accompanied by negative environmental consequences such as the Borneo rainforest being under pressure from palm oil plantations whilst other areas are subject to wholesale logging. Further environmental concerns stem from air pollution through industrial and vehicular emissions; water pollution from raw sewage; deforestation; smoke/haze from Indonesian forest fires according to the CIA world fact book.
According to UNHCR, asylum-seekers and refugees in Malaysia are in excess of 100,000 people; the majority (90%) are refugees and asylum seekers originating from Myanmar, whilst the other 10% per cent are from Afghanistan, Iraq, Somalia, and Sri Lanka.